National Yang-Ming University, Department & Institute of Physiology

National Yang-Ming University, Department & Institute of Physiology

Yu Ru Kou

 Research Field    Publications    Research grant    Lab intro    (2014.01.23  update)


Yu Ru Kou


Position Professor
Tel. 886-2-2826-7086
Fax No. 886-2-2826-4049





Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Kentucky, Kentucky, U.S.A



Bachelor of Science, Department of Biology, Tunghai University, Taiwan, R.O.C

Experience Assistant Research Fellow (1974-1975), Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica Taipei, Taiwan,ROC
Research Interests:

My major research interests are:

(1)Inflammation and apoptosis of lung cells - Various techniques of cellular and molecular biology including cell culture, protein measurements, immunocyto-staining, PCR, microarray analysis, gene transfection are used.  Airway epithelial cells, pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages are studied.

(2)Pathophysiological mechanisms and therapies of various types of acute lung injury and pulmonary inflammation - Protein measurements, immunocyto-staining, PCR, and pathohistological methods are used.  Rats and mice studied.

(3)Critical care medicine in neonates and adults - Measurements of respiratory signals, pulmonary function test, protein measurements, immunocyto-staining, PCR, and pathohistological methods are used.  Rats, piglets, and human subjects are studied.

(4)Functions of respiratory reflexive defense mechanisms - Conventional methods recording respiratory signals and electrophysiological techniques are used. Rats and mice are studied.

(5)Respiratory variability in health and disease conditions - Measurements of respiratory signals, statistical analysis, and mathematical analysis are used.  Human subjects are studied.

Currently (209), my laboratory has1 students working in the master program, 8 students working in the Ph.D. program, and 2 full-time technician. I also collaborate with four clinicians from the Departments of Otolaryngology, Pediatrics and Critical Care Medicine, and four professors in the Department of Physiology from other universities.


Selected Recent Publications:
1 Chen PK, Shih CC, Lin FC, Perng DW, Chou KT, Kou YR*, Ko HK. Prolonged use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation after extubation among patients in the intensive care unit following cardiac surgery: The predictors and its impact on patient outcome. Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 2;9(1):9539.
2 Su KC, Ko HK, Chou KT, Hsiao YH, Su VY, Perng DW, Kou YR*. An accurate prediction model to identify undiagnosed at-risk patients with COPD: a cross-sectional case-finding study. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med. 2019 May 28;29(1):22.
3 Chen YC, Yu WK, Ko HK, Pan SW, Chen YW, Ho LI, Bien MY, Wang JH, Chan YJ, Kou YR*. Post-intensive care unit respiratory failure in older patients liberated from intensive care unit and ventilator: The predictive value of the National Early Warning Score on intensive care unit discharge. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2019 Apr;19(4):317-322.
4 Lin AH, Liu MH, Ko HK, Perng DW, Lee TS, Kou YR*. Menthol Cigarette Smoke Induces More Severe Lung Inflammation Than Non-menthol Cigarette Smoke Does in Mice With Subchronic Exposure - Role of TRPM8. Front Physiol. 2018 Dec 18;9:1817.
5 Hsiao YH, Tseng CM, Su KC, Chen WC, Wu MT, Wu YC, Chang SC, Lee YC, Kou YR*, Perng DW. Glycopyrronium bromide inhibits lung inflammation and small airway remodeling induced by subchronic cigarette smoke exposure in mice. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2018 Feb;249:16-22.
6 Pan SW, Yen YF, Kou YR, Chuang PH, Su VY, Feng JY, Chan YJ, Su WJ. The Risk of TB in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Initiating Metformin vs Sulfonylurea Treatment. Chest. 2018 Jun;153(6):1347-1357.
7 Su KC, Kou YR, Lin FC, Wu CH, Feng JY, Huang SF, Shiung TF, Chung KC, Tung YH, Yang KY, Chang SC. A simplified prevention bundle with dual hand hygiene audit reduces early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in cardiovascular surgery units: An interrupted time-series analysis. PLoS One. 2017 Aug 2;12(8):e0182252.
8 Pan SW, Yen YF, Kou YR, Chuang PH, Feng JY, Chan YJ, Su WJ. The impact of cancer development on the risk of mycobacterial diseases among rheumatoid arthritis patients. Epidemiol Infect. 2017 Sep;145(12):2482-2490.
9 Lin CH, Jeng MJ, Yang YC, Hsiao YH, Kou YR*. Comparison of different dosing strategies of intratracheally instilled budesonide on meconium injured piglet lungs. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017 Jul;52(7):891-899.
10 Lin AH, Liu MH, Ko HB, Perng DW, Lee TS, Kou YR*. Inflammatory Effects of Menthol vs. Non-menthol Cigarette Smoke Extract on Human Lung Epithelial Cells: A Double-Hit on TRPM8 by Reactive Oxygen Species and Menthol. Front Physiol. 2017 Apr 27;8:263.
11 Tsao PC, Lee YS, Jeng MJ, Hsu JW, Huang KL, Tsai SJ, Chen MH, Soong WJ, Kou YR*. Additive effect of congenital heart disease and early developmental disorders on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder: a nationwide population-based longitudinal study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 Nov;26(11):1351-1359.
12 Liu MH, Lin AH, Ko HK, Perng DW, Lee TS, Kou YR*. Prevention of Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice by Paeonol. Front Physiol. 2017 Mar 31;8:193.
13 Su KC, Chou KT, Hsiao YH, Tseng CM, Su VY, Lee YC, Perng DW, Kou YR*. Measuring (1,3)-β-D-glucan in tracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and serum for detection of suspected Candida pneumonia in immunocompromised and critically ill patients: a prospective observational study. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Apr 8;17(1):252.
14 Yang CH, Shen YJ, Lai CJ, Kou YR*. Inflammatory Role of ROS-Sensitive AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in the Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers Induced by Intermittent Hypoxia in Rats. Front Physiol. 2016 Jun 27;7:263.
15 Zhao JF, Shyue SK, Kou YR, Lu TM, Lee TS. Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Channel Involved in Atherosclerosis and Macrophage-Foam Cell Formation. Int J Biol Sci. 2016 May 25;12(7):812-23.
16 Chan MC, Tseng JS, Hsu KH, Shih SJ, Yi CY, Wu CL, Kou YR*. A minimum blood glucose value less than or equal to 120 mg/dL under glycemic control is associated with increased 14-day mortality in nondiabetic intensive care unit patients with sepsis and stress hyperglycemia. J Crit Care. 2016 Aug;34:69-73.
17 Chan MC, Lin CH, Kou YR*. Hyperlipidemia in COPD is associated with decreased incidence of pneumonia and mortality: a nationwide health insurance data-based retrospective cohort study. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2016 May 18;11:1053-9.
18 Yang CH, Zhuang WL, Shen YJ, Lai CJ, Kou YR*. NADPH Oxidase-Derived ROS Induced by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Mediates Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers in Rats. Front Physiol. 2016 May 9;7:166.
19 Yu YB, Su KH, Kou YR, Guo BC, Lee KI, Wei J, Lee TS. Role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in regulating erythropoietin-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2017 Feb;219(2):465-477.
20 Tseng YH, Ko HK, Tseng YC, Lin YH, Kou YR*. Atrial Fibrillation on Intensive Care Unit Admission Independently Increases the Risk of Weaning Failure in Nonheart Failure Mechanically Ventilated Patients in a Medical Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Case-Control Study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 May;95(20):e3744.
21 Lin CH, Jeng MJ, Kuo BI, Kou YR*. Effects of Surfactant Lavage Combined With Intratracheal Budesonide Instillation on Meconium-Injured Piglet Lungs. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Jun;17(6):e287-95.
22 Pan SW, Kou YR, Hu TM, Wu YC, Lee YC, Feng JY, Su WJ. Assessment of latent tuberculosis infection in psychiatric inpatients: A survey after tuberculosis outbreaks. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2016 Aug;49(4):575-83.
23 Pan SW, Yen YF, Feng JY, Su VY, Kou YR, Su WJ. The Risk of Depressive Disorder Among Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in a TB-endemic Area: A Population-based Cohort Study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Oct;94(43):e1870.
24 Lin AH, Liu MH, Ko HK, Perng DW, Lee TS, Kou YR*. Lung Epithelial TRPA1 Transduces the Extracellular ROS into Transcriptional Regulation of Lung Inflammation Induced by Cigarette Smoke: The Role of Influxed Ca²⁺. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:148367.
25 Yu WK, Ko HK, Ho LI, Wang JH, Kou YR*. Synergistic impact of acute kidney injury and high level of cervical spinal cord injury on the weaning outcome of patients with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury. Injury. 2015 Jul;46(7):1317-23.
26 Liu BY, Lin YJ, Lee HF, Ho CY, Ruan T, Kou YR*. Menthol suppresses laryngeal C-fiber hypersensitivity to cigarette smoke in a rat model of gastroesophageal reflux disease: the role of TRPM8. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 Mar 1;118(5):635-45.
27 Ko HK, Lee HF, Lin AH, Liu MH, Liu CI, Lee TS, Kou YR*. Regulation of Cigarette Smoke Induction of IL-8 in Macrophages by AMP-activated Protein Kinase Signaling. J Cell Physiol. 2015 Aug;230(8):1781-93.
28 Liu MH, Lin AH, Lu SH, Peng RY, Lee TS, Kou YR*. Eicosapentaenoic acid attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting ROS-sensitive inflammatory signaling. Front Physiol. 2014 Nov 14;5:440.
29 Zhao JF, Hsiao SH, Hsu MH, Pao KC, Kou YR, Shyue SK, Lee TS. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Arch Toxicol. 2016 Jan;90(1):181-90.
30 Chan MC, Tseng JS, Chiu JT, Hsu KH, Shih SJ, Yi CY, Wu CL, Kou YR*. Prognostic value of plateau pressure below 30 cm H2O in septic subjects with acute respiratory failure. Respir Care. 2015 Jan;60(1):12-20.
31 Fan WJ, Chen SC, Hsieh TH, Lai CH, Lin YS, Peng CW, Kou YR*. Influence of serotonergic mechanisms on the urine flow rate in male rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014 Nov 15;307(10):R1239-50.
32 Liu MH, Lin AH, Lee HF, Ko HK, Lee TS, Kou YR*. Paeonol attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting ROS-sensitive inflammatory signaling. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:651890.
33 Ruan T, Lin YJ, Hsu TH, Lu SH, Jow GM, Kou YR*. Sensitization by pulmonary reactive oxygen species of rat vagal lung C-fibers: the roles of the TRPV1, TRPA1, and P2X receptors. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 3;9(4):e91763.
Research grant: 
1. Research Promotion in Anatomy, Physiology and Forensic  Medicine (2009/01/01~2010/12/31) 

2. Novel Protein Function of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Negatively Regulates Lipopolysacharrideand Cigarette Smoke-induced Lung Inflammation in  Mice via Common Molecular Mechanisms (2009/08/01~2012/07/31) 

3. Neural and Mediator Mechanisms Underlying the Laryngeal Airway Hyperreactivity in a Rat Model of Gastroesophageal Reflux (2006/08/01~2009/10/31)

Lab membership:
Master Student: 
Ph.D. Student: An-Shiuan Lin, Meng-Han Liu, Shiue-Shiau Lin,  Chung-Huan Yang, Pei-Chen Tsao, Ming-Cheng Chan, Yu-Ming Wang, Kuen- Ming Wu, Wen-Guang YuGang-Jeng Su, Ching-Ming Tseng, Yi-Han Hsiao
Research Assistant: Hai-ching Hsu,Chiao-Ting Zou